The topology is the branching structure of the tree. It is of particular biological significance because it indicates patterns of relatedness among taxa, meaning that trees with the same topology and root have the same biological interpretation.”-1
Topology is paraphrased as “the way in which parts are interrelated or arranged based on various properties including shape, function, or size…”Cladistics is an inference of a topology of life based on assumptions of a universal common ancestry of life.
Cladistics is a method used for the classification of animals, insects, and plants (taxa) according to the proportion of measurable characteristics that they have in common (anatomical or genetic similarity) that is used to infer shared characteristics of supposed ancestral groups inferring that all such members have the same ancestors.https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/topology#:~:text=a(1),%3A%20configuration
Cladistic analysis is a popular inference for constructing evolutionary topologies (trees or webs) based on (I) living organisms and (II) fossils. Traits considered for each include (1) behavior similarities–to a lesser extent; (2) anatomical or physiological similarities; and (3) genetic sequence similarities.
Two bodies of evidence are used for cladistics: (1) living life forms; (2) fossils. Two types of genetic data exist: (1) living life forms; (2) DNA fragments in fossils.
Cladistics focuses on similarities of behavior, anatomical, and genetic sequences to determine supposed common ancestry
In living organisms, all three traits (behaviors, anatomical, and genetic) can be observed, measured, and substantiated; however, this is not the case with fossils. While major behaviors in fossilized organisms can be assumed from the evidence, such as many birds with feathers had flight, more subtle, highly refined, or specialized behaviors can only be inferred, such as dinosaurs nurturing their young. Without evidence of a distant past, the presuppositions of evolution are critically weakened.
Genetic evidence cannot be relied upon to substantiate such claims.
“(Fossils contain only) low quantity, degraded and fragmented DNA, and contamination are the four issues we have with ancient DNA,” says Bastien Llamas, an ancient DNA expert at the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA at the University of Adelaide.“Can we really extract ancient DNA from dinosaurs?” Deborah Devis, Oct 2021 Bold is mine.
Genetic data can be compared within Living organisms but not with fossils.
This means, among other things, that supposed genetic mutations of the distant past thousands of years ago, like blue eyes in human beings-1, are merely inferences. The mechanism of evolution (“good” mutations long ago) proves the mechanism of evolution…? No.
Unfortunately, such genetic similarity claims between extant life and fossils cannot be validated by evidence.
Despite the countless claims to the contrary, we have found that fossils are bankrupt of DNA data stores sufficient to confirm supposed pre-mutational conditions, such as lactose tolerance in humans. -2 These complete DNA stores of thousands of years ago do not exist– perhaps fragments but nothing sufficient as evidence.
The genetic material found within fossils has proven to be vastly limited, rare, low-quality, degraded, and composed of fragments.
Therefore, any claim that genetic similarities between fossilized specimens and living organisms can be confirmed by genetic similarities is not substantiated. Such comparisons between fossils and living organisms are limited to anatomical similarities. Such anatomical similarities do not directly imply universal common ancestry of life any more than they might imply evidence for Intelligent Design.